school—Compounds with school are generally closed, with a few exceptions. Check the dictionary: school board, school bus, school-age, schoolchildren, schoolroom, schoolteacher, schoolwork.
seasons—The four seasons are lowercased: fall 1994, the spring semester. Her favorite season was winter. Seasons are capitalized, however, when used in place of the month or issue number of a periodical: Journal of Human Resources (Fall 2009).
SEFA/United Way Campaign
self—Most constructions with self are hyphenated, “except when self- is followed by a suffix or preceded by un”: self-conscious, self-reliant, self-righteous, self-restraint, selfish, selfless, unselfconscious. (21) (See suffixes.)
semester—Lowercase: fall semester, spring semester.
semi- (prefix)—Generally closed: semiannual, semifinal, semiliterate, semicircle, but use the hyphen between repeated vowels: semi-independent, semi-indirect. (See prefixes and suffixes.)
series and editions—Titles of book series and editions are capitalized and set in roman type without quotation marks. The words series and edition are lowercase when they are not part of the title: Chicago History of American Civilization series, Modern Library edition, second edition.
setup (n.), set up (v.)—This looks like a setup. He set up the backdrop.
ships, trains, aircraft, spacecraft—“Names of specific ships, submarines, aircraft, spacecraft, and artificial satellites are italicized, but not abbreviations such as SS or HMS preceding them”: USS SC-530, Voyager 2, Sputnik II, CSS Shenandoah. (22) “Designations of class or make, names of trains, and names of space programs are capitalized but not italicized”: DC-10, Concorde, Project Apollo. (23)
shut—Compound nouns with shut are generally hyphenated or closed: shut-in, shutdown, shutoff, shutout. Consult the dictionary. As verbs, they remain open: He shut down his computer. She shut off the light.
sign up (v.), sign-up (n., adj.): Please sign up before the event. Sign-up is Tuesday. The sign-up sheet will be posted on the door.
Social Security, Social Security number
socio- (prefix)—Generally closed, no hyphen: socioeconomic, sociopolitical. (See prefixes and suffixes.)
South Buffalo (See directions and regions.)
State University Construction Fund
study abroad (adv.), study-abroad (adj.): She will study abroad. I joined a study-abroad program.
sub- (prefix)—Most constructions with sub are closed: subbasement, subordinate, substandard. Hyphenate when used with a proper noun: sub-Saharan, sub-Arctic. (See prefixes and suffixes.)
subtitles—Use a colon, not a semicolon or a dash, between titles and subtitles: Working with Words: A Concise Handbook for Media Writers and Editors.
SUNY Board of Trustees (Board of Trustees, trustees)
SUNY Distinguished Professor—Awarded by the SUNY Board of Trustees, a rank higher than (full) professor. Always capitalized.
SUNY Distinguished Service Professor—Awarded by the SUNY Board of Trustees, a rank higher than (full) professor. Always capitalized.
SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor—Awarded by the SUNY Board of Trustees, a rank higher than (full) professor. Always capitalized.
SUNY, University Centers—Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, and Stony Brook. Each institution has its own preferred name. Add "State University of New York" when this affiliation is unclear to the reader.
SUNY, University Colleges—Each institution has its own preferred name. Spell out SUNY if the abbreviation may be unclear to the reader (for example, a national or international audience).
(21) Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (2003), 7.90
(22) Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition (1993), 7.99
(23) Ibid., 7.100
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